Product Pathways - Lymphocyte Signaling
GITR (D9I9D) Rabbit mAb (IHC Preferred) #68014
|68014S||100 µl ( 10 western blots )||￥3,480.00 现货查询||购买询价|
|68014T||20 µl ( 2 western blots )||请询价 现货查询||购买询价|
|68014||carrier free & custom formulation / quantity||email request|
Species cross-reactivity is determined by western blot.
Applications Key: W=Western Blotting, IHC-P=Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin),
Species predicted to react based on 100% sequence homology: Monkey,
Specificity / Sensitivity
GITR (D9I9D) Rabbit mAb (IHC Preferred) #68014 recognizes endogenous levels of total GITR protein.
Source / Purification
Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues surrounding Val142 of human GITR protein.
Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human HuT 102 (left) and Jurkat (right) cell pellets using GITR (D9I9D) Rabbit mAb (IHC Preferred).
Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human colon carcinoma using GITR (D9I9D) Rabbit mAb (IHC Preferred).
Western blot analysis of extracts from human CD8+ T cells, HuT 102, and Jurkat cells using GITR (D9I9D) Rabbit mAb
(IHC Preferred) (upper), and β-Actin (D6A8) Rabbit mAb #8457 (lower). CD8+ T cells were purified from human blood and stimulated for 9 days using beads coated with CD3 and CD28 antibodies in the presence of human interleukin-2 (hIL-2) #8907 (6.7 ng/ml).
TNFRSF18, also known as glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor-receptor (TNFR)-related protein (GITR) and activation-inducible TNFR family receptor, encodes a type 1 membrane protein of the TNF-receptor superfamily (1). Three alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported (2). GITR is an immune cell co-stimulatory receptor expressed constitutively at high levels on CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells (Tregs), at low levels on naive and memory T cells, and is induced upon T cell activation (3-5). Studies show GITR can also be induced on NK cells, macrophages, and DCs (3, 4, 6). Although GITR does not have intrinsic enzymatic activity, TNFSF18 (also known as GITRL) expressed on antigen presenting cells binds to GITR resulting in recruitment of TNFR-associated factor family members and activation of the NF-kappa-B pathway in T cells (7). GITR ligation has been shown to play a role in CD8+ T cell activation, cytoxicity, and memory T cell survival (8-10). In the thymus, GITR is thought to play a key role in dominant immunological self-tolerance through thymic Treg differentiation and expansion (11). Of note, GITR ligation inhibits Treg suppressive function (12-13) and promotes effector T cell resistance to Treg suppression (14-15). Due to the combined effects on both Treg suppression and effector cell activation, GITR represents a unique opportunity for immunotherapeutic intervention in cancer (16).
- Nocentini, G. et al. (1997) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94, 6216-21.
- Nocentini, G. et al. (2000) Cell Death Differ 7, 408-10.
- Shimizu, J. et al. (2002) Nat Immunol 3, 135-42.
- Nocentini, G. and Riccardi, C. (2009) Adv Exp Med Biol 647, 156-73.
- McHugh, R.S. et al. (2002) Immunity 16, 311-23.
- Hanabuchi, S. et al. (2006) Blood 107, 3617-23.
- Snell, L.M. et al. (2011) Immunol Rev 244, 197-217.
- Ronchetti, S. et al. (2007) J Immunol 179, 5916-26.
- Kim, I.K. et al. (2015) Nat Med 21, 1010-7.
- Snell, L.M. et al. (2012) J Immunol 188, 5915-23.
- Petrillo, M.G. et al. (2015) Autoimmun Rev 14, 117-26.
- Kanamaru, F. et al. (2004) J Immunol 172, 7306-14.
- Valzasina, B. et al. (2005) Blood 105, 2845-51.
- Stephens, G.L. et al. (2004) J Immunol 173, 5008-20.
- Nishikawa, H. et al. (2008) Cancer Res 68, 5948-54.
- Knee, D.A. et al. (2016) Eur J Cancer 67, 1-10.
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For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.
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Cell Signaling Technology® is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.
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