Cell Signaling Technology

Product Pathways - Growth Factors/Cytokines

TNF-α (D1G2) Rabbit mAb (PE Conjugate) #12398

Applications Dilution Species-Reactivity Sensitivity MW (kDa) Isotype
F 1:50 Human, Endogenous Rabbit

Species cross-reactivity is determined by western blot.

Applications Key: F=Flow Cytometry,

Specificity / Sensitivity

TNF-α (D1G2) Rabbit mAb (PE Conjugate) recognizes endogenous levels of total TNF-α protein.

TNF-α (D1G2) Rabbit mAb (PE偶联)能够检测内源性TNF-α总蛋白水平。

Source / Purification

Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with recombinant human TNF-α protein.

此单克隆抗体通过重组人源TNF-α蛋白免疫动物制备。

Description

This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated TNF-α (D1G2) Rabbit mAb (IF/Flow Preferred) #8184.

CST的这种抗体与藻红蛋白(PE)偶联,并且通过在人源细胞上的流式细胞分析进行严格内部检测。此抗体与未偶联的TNF-α (D1G2) Rabbit mAb (IF/Flow优先适用) #8184一样,具有同物种之间的交叉反应性。

Flow Cytometry

Flow Cytometry

Flow cytometric analysis of human peripheral blood lymphocytes, untreated (left) or treated with TPA #4174 (40 nM, 4 hr), Ionomycin #9995 (2 μM, 4 hr), and Brefeldin A #9972 (1 μg/ml, last 3 hr of treatment) (right), using a CD3 antibody and TNF-α (D1G2) Rabbit mAb (PE Conjugate).流式细胞术分析人源外周血淋巴细胞,未处理(左图)或TPA #4174 (40 nM, 4 小时), Ionomycin #9995 (2 μM, 4 小时), 和 Brefeldin A #9972 (1 μg/ml, 最后3小时处理) (右图)。使用抗体是一种CD3抗体和TNF-α (D1G2) Rabbit mAb (PE Conjugate)。

Background

TNF-α, the prototypical member of the TNF protein superfamily, is a homotrimeric type-II membrane protein (1,2). Membrane-bound TNF-α is cleaved by the metalloprotease TACE/ADAM17 to generate a soluble homotrimer (2). Both membrane and soluble forms of TNF-α are biologically active. TNF-α is produced by a variety of immune cells including T cells, B cells, NK cells, and macrophages (1). Cellular response to TNF-α is mediated through interaction with receptors TNF-R1 and TNF-R2 and results in activation of pathways that favor both cell survival and apoptosis depending on the cell type and biological context. Activation of kinase pathways (including JNK, Erk1/2, p38 MAPK, and NF-κB) promotes the survival of cells, while TNF-α-mediated activation of caspase-8 leads to programmed cell death (1,2). TNF-α plays a key regulatory role in inflammation and host defense against bacterial infection, notably Mycobacterium tuberculosis (3).

TNF-α是典型的TNF家族成员, 是II型的同源三聚体膜蛋白(1,2)。细胞膜锚定的TNF-α通过金属蛋白酶 TACE/ADAM17的剪切,形成可溶性的同型三聚体(2)。膜锚定和可溶性两种形式都有生物活性。TNF-α可由很多种类的细胞产生,包括T细胞、B细胞、巨噬细胞和NK细胞(1)。TNF-α的细胞内应答是通过与 TNF-R1 和 TNF-R2 两种受体互作而介导的,从而激活细胞存活和细胞凋亡两个截然相反地过程,这两个过程的发生主要决定于细胞的类型和生物学环境。某些激酶激活的通路(包括JNK、Erk (p44/42)、p38 MAPK 和 NF-κB) 可促进细胞的存活,然而TNF-α介导的对caspase-8的活化导致了程序性的细胞死亡(1,2)。TNF-α在炎症反应和宿主抵抗细菌入侵的过程特别是针对结核分枝杆菌感染发挥了重要的调控作用(3)。

  1. Aggarwal, B.B. (2003) Nat Rev Immunol 3, 745-56.
  2. Hehlgans, T. and Pfeffer, K. (2005) Immunology 115, 1-20.
  3. Lin, P.L. et al. (2007) J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc 12, 22-5.

Application References

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For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.

Cell Signaling Technology is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.

Cell Signaling Technology® is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.

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